PZL Jak-12 Creek in Polish ServiceOctober 3, 2018
Jak-12 for Poland in 1952
In 1952. A few Yak-12 R planes were brought to Poland. Probably four or five copies. We know the following machines No.; 0225, 5013, 4640213 and 4640216. In fact, these were machines Yak-12 with engines M-11 FR, built in 1950 -1951. They were tested for the army.
The tests carried out showed their utter unsuitability (long run, low capacity, small range – strong lack of power in the engine). Even so, before the end of the tests, Lieutenant General Ivan Turkiel , the then Air Force Commander, ordered airplanes to be brought in to use.
On 13-30 September 1995. (ie a few years later) one of these original planes was shown at the Wroclaw Exhibition at Pilczno Airport.
Aviation and Astronautics Museum in Krakow
At the end of January 1952, one of the aircraft, Yak-12-M-11 FR No. 5013, was transferred to the Aeroclub of the Liga Lotnicza. It was registered on February 16, 1952, with SP-ASZ marks. The chessboard polish insignia was painted over on the air frame. The machine was painted in Russian airforce green as standard and the bottom was blue. Later they were repainted to the standard color of the #PRL #Aeroclub at that time; red and cream. On September 14, 1971 was removed from the register and transferred to the Aviation and Astronautics Museum in Krakow.
The Aeroclub attempted to use the Yak-12-M-11 FR for towing gliders. But the low engine power and poor structure of the tail section made it impossible to mount the hook for the towing rope.
At the beginning of the 60’s, the remaining military copies of the Yak-12-M-11 FR were handed over to the Aeroclub of the PRL. They received registrations; SP-CFO, SP-CFP. They served to (respectively) 1968, 1971 ..
The first machines
In 1956. The #Polish Army received 5 Y-12 R machines. Again, they were not new machines. An interesting thing about these machines was the installation of a metal claw, extended from the tail section. This claw was supposed to be an additional brake when landing in a contingent area. It is not known whether it was an idea developed by the factory or an invention of pilots and mechanics from the Soviet unit.
The first public demonstration of the Jak-12 R nb 01 aircraft took place at Okęcie Airport on August 26, 1969 – September 9, 1956, at the Warsaw IA.
Production in Poland in 1956.
The Jak-12 M version was the first variant produced on a mass scale. The Russian Factory y was unable to meet the needs. The Yakovlev factory offered Poland the license for production of the aircraft.
In 1954. PZL Okęcie plants produced several hundred pieces of Junak-3 and CCS-13 aircraft of various versions. In 1955. the production rate dropped significantly. Only 147 machines. The prospects for 1956 were even worse. The Polish market has already saturated. Theoretically, you could search for buyers abroad. However, without the consent of CCCP, this were almost impossible.
There was also another issue. In the communist Polish People’s Republic, the Jak-12 M construction was sold as a much more modern construction in the first years of the existence of People’s Poland. In fact, it was not like that at all. Of course, wood and plywood were no longer used in the construction. However, the construction of the fuselage was not very different from the planes developed by the team of Tadeusz Sołtyk. Besides,
An aviation legacy destroyed
it should be remembered that both Nazi Germany and Russia completely destroyed Poland’s pre-war aviation industry, which in the late 1930’s was the equal of Britain and Germany . All documentation and unique equipment were stolen. Never again, would the Polish Aviation Industry develop to the global level. In the 21st century, the last nail was hammered in was made on the Polish Aviation Industry, selling off all factories for almost nothing.
The Production Yak-12 M
In 1955. a decision was made to obtain a license for the production of Yak-12 M. However, the documentation and plans had to be prepared at WSK-4 PZL-Okecie. It was necessary to remodel the production line significantly. It resulted from the fact that Polish post-war factories were of mixed construction (metal truss, wooden other elements.)
The first Polish Jak-12 was test flown in early 1956 by Mieczysław Miłosz a successful WW2 Pilot.
The first production series consisted of 20 aircraft and was completely completed in 1956. In Poland, Jak-12 M – 1 053 (1 054) pieces and Jak-12 A – 137 pieces were built in Poland. Production of Jak-12 A at WSK PZL Okęcie lasted from 1959 to 1960. In 1960. the license production of Jak-12 aircraft was completed in Poland.
In PZL Kalisz, the production of IA-14 R engines was started. The letter R means the use of a reducer. The use of a reducer allows the use of a larger diameter propeller. Even 2.70 m. Such a propeller gives a high static thrust and higher efficiency at low speeds. This improves the start characteristics and allows for easy towing of a glider. However, there are cons. The larger diameter propeller reduces the maximum speed from around 210-220 km / h to 180-190 km / h.
A large part of the machines built in Poland went to the Polish Army. The users were DWL (command of air forces), KBW (public security corps), WOP (border protection forces), MW (navy). Many machines went to air regiments and were used in liaison escorts. The army operated 51 machines, including 27 two-axles, which were marked with UJak-12 M. The last Yak-12 M was removed from the state in 1983. The army also took over 32 Yak-12 A machines.
For the first time, the Jak-12 M plane with chessboard was shown at the 2nd Warsaw Air Exhibition before the Arsenal on September 7-15, 1957. and at the III Warsaw Air Show at Zwycięstwa Square on August 30, 1958 – September 15, 1978.
The Polish Army gave its Jak-12 M / A airplanes mainly to aeroclubs, institutes and business entities.
In addition to Polskie Wojska, Jak-12 M / A aircraft produced in Poland went to; Aeroclub aviation, sanitary aviation, selected business entities. Of course, the largest number of aircraft were exported to CCCP.